Rule 1. Scope and Purpose These rules govern the procedure in all civil actions and proceedings in the United States district courts, except as stated in Rule 81. They should be construed and administered to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action and proceeding.Rule 4. Summons (a) CONTENTS; AMENDMENTS. (1) Contents. A summons must: (A) name the court and the parties; (B) be directed to the defendant; (C) state the name and address of the plaintiff’s attorney or—if unrepresented—of the plaintiff; (D) state the time within which the defendant must appear and defend; (E) notify the defendant that a failure to appear and defend will result in a default judgment against the defendant for the relief demanded in the complaint; (F) be signed by the clerk; and (G) bear the court’s seal. (2) Amendments. The court may permit a summons to be amendedRULE 11. SIGNING PLEADINGS, MOTIONS, AND OTHER PAPERS; REPRESENTATIONS TO THE COURT; SANCTIONS  (a) Signature. Every pleading, written motion, and other paper must be signed by at least one attorney of record in the attorney's name—or by a party personally if the party is unrepresented. The paper must state the signer's address, e-mail address, and telephone number. Unless a rule or statute specifically states otherwise, a pleading need not be verified or accompanied by an affidavit. The court must strike an unsigned paper unless the omission is promptly corrected after being called to the attorney's or party's attention.  (b) Representations to the Court. By presenting to the court a pleading, written motion, or other paper—whether by signing, filing, submitting, or later advocating it—an attorney or unrepresented party certifies that to the best of the person's knowledge, information, and belief, formed after an inquiry reasonable under the circumstances:  (1) it is not being presented for any improper purpose, such as to harass, cause unnecessary delay, or needlessly increase the cost of litigation;  (2) the claims, defenses, and other legal contentions are warranted by existing law or by a nonfrivolous argument for extending, modifying, or reversing existing law or for establishing new law;  (3) the factual contentions have evidentiary support or, if specifically so identified, will likely have evidentiary support after a reasonable opportunity for further investigation or discovery; and  (4) the denials of factual contentions are warranted on the evidence or, if specifically so identified, are reasonably based on belief or a lack of information.RULE 12. DEFENSES AND OBJECTIONS: WHEN AND HOW PRESENTED; MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS; CONSOLIDATING MOTIONS; WAIVING DEFENSES; PRETRIAL HEARING  (a) Time to Serve a Responsive Pleading.  (1) In General. Unless another time is specified by this rule or a federal statute, the time for serving a responsive pleading is as follows:  (A) A defendant must serve an answer:  (i) within 21 days after being served with the summons and complaint; or  (ii) if it has timely waived service under Rule 4(d), within 60 days after the request for a waiver was sent, or within 90 days after it was sent to the defendant outside any judicial district of the United States.  (B) A party must serve an answer to a counterclaim or crossclaim within 21 days after being served with the pleading that states the counterclaim or crossclaim.  (C) A party must serve a reply to an answer within 21 days after being served with an order to reply, unless the order specifies a different time. (2) United States and Its Agencies, Officers, or Employees Sued in an Official Capacity. The United States, a United States agency, or a United States officer or employee sued only in an official capacity must serve an answer to a complaint, counterclaim, or crossclaim within 60 days after service on the United States attorney.  (3) United States Officers or Employees Sued in an Individual Capacity. A United States officer or employee sued in an individual capacity for an act or omission occurring in connection with duties performed on the United States’ behalf must serve an answer to a complaint, counterclaim, or crossclaim within 60 days after service on the officer or employee or service on the United States attorney, whichever is later.  (4) Effect of a Motion. Unless the court sets a different time, serving a motion under this rule alters these periods as follows:  (A) if the court denies the motion or postpones its disposition until trial, the responsive pleading must be served within 14 days after notice of the court's action; or  (B) if the court grants a motion for a more definite statement, the responsive pleading must be served within 14 days after the more definite statement is served.  (b) How to Present Defenses. Every defense to a claim for relief in any pleading must be asserted in the responsive pleading if one is required. But a party may assert the following defenses by motion:  (1) lack of subject-matter jurisdiction;  (2) lack of personal jurisdiction;  (3) improper venue;  (4) insufficient process;  (5) insufficient service of process;  (6) failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted; and  (7) failure to join a party under Rule 19.RULE 19. REQUIRED JOINDER OF PARTIES (a) Persons Required to Be Joined if FeasibleRULE 20. PERMISSIVE JOINDER OF PARTIES(B) Proceedings Exempt from Initial Disclosure. The following proceedings are exempt from initial disclosure:  (i) an action for review on an administrative record;  (ii) a forfeiture action in rem arising from a federal statute;  (iii) a petition for habeas corpus or any other proceeding to challenge a criminal conviction or sentence;  (iv) an action brought without an attorney by a person in the custody of the United States, a state, or a state subdivision;  (v) an action to enforce or quash an administrative summons or subpoena;  (vi) an action by the United States to recover benefit payments;  (vii) an action by the United States to collect on a student loan guaranteed by the United States;  (viii) a proceeding ancillary to a proceeding in another court; and  (ix) an action to enforce an arbitration award.(c) Protective Orders.(d) Timing and Sequence of Discovery.(e) Supplementing Disclosures and Responses.(f) Conference of the Parties; Planning for Discovery.(g) Signing Disclosures and Discovery Requests, Responses, and Objections.RULE 34. PRODUCING DOCUMENTS, ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION, AND TANGIBLE THINGS, OR ENTERING ONTO LAND, FOR INSPECTION AND OTHER PURPOSESRULE 37. FAILURE TO MAKE DISCLOSURES OR TO COOPERATE IN DISCOVERY; SANCTIONSRULE 56. SUMMARY JUDGMENT